What is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease commonly caused by the bacillus “Mycobacterium tuberculosis”. People also can get infected with other types of bacteria in the Mycobacterium group.In majority of cases, TB affects the lungs (Pulmonary TB). But it also can affect any part of the body (Extra pulmonary TB).Pulmonary TB can be sputum smear positive (which is infectious as sputum of the patient contains large amounts of tubercle bacilli) and sputum negative TB.


The air we breathe is carried into and out of our lungs through a system of finely branching tubes. The tubes consist of a wall lined by muscles and a hollow interior, which allows the smooth passage of air. The hollow interior is lined by a tissue rich in blood vessels, nerve endings and mucous glands. It is essential that the hollow interior is maintained without narrowing or obstruction to provide smooth passage of air.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. It’s caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions.

World TB Day - 24 March 2022